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Kaliningrad trams
800px-TramKaliningrad1
Info
Locale Kaliningrad, Russia
Transit type Tram
Number of lines 3
Number of stations 1
Operation
Began operation 1881
Number of vehicles 293
Technical
Track gauge 1,435 mm
440px-Königsberg Castle

Horse tram in Kaliningrad

800px-Kaliningrad town hall and tram424

Tatra KT4SU in Kaliningrad, forner line nr 4

Kaliningrad tram - the tram system of western Russia, the only operating tram system Kaliningrad region. Is the oldest tram system on the territory of modern Russia (in force since 1895). Kaliningrad tram - one of two surviving tramway systems in Russia with a meter gauge (the other - in Pyatigorsk).

In the long tramway was an important part of urban transport in Kaliningrad, but in recent years, its value decreases, since the administration of Kaliningrad's policy of eliminating tram routes due to the fact that lobbies the interests of taxi-owners and members of the bus companies, but to remove the line in term to be replaced by trolleybuses. But in practice, was replaced only on Gorky Street. In all other cases (Suvorov street, Nevsky) plans to replace and there were only plans.

HistoryEdit

Horse tramEdit

Conca at the foot of the castle of Königsberg

The forerunner of the electric tram in Konigsberg was a trolley, the first route which began operating in 1881. Conca rapidly, to the first route adds new. Konka to build and operate joint stock companies.

By 1895 in Konigsberg was already five tram routes:

  • Forshtadt - Shtayndammskie gate;
  • Kronenshtrasse - Rezashtrasse (now Kalinin"s Prospect - street Sergeyev);
  • King's Gate - East Station (now Gagarina - street Polotsk);
  • Shtayndammskie gates - Hinterrossgarten (now Victory Square - Clinical Street);
  • Postshtrasse - Yulhental (now Shevchenko Street - Central Park of Culture and Rest).

Electric trams (prewar)Edit

The opening movement of the electric tram in Königsberg on 31 May 1895. His first route ran from Pilausskogo station (not preserved, located in the vicinity of the current Mariupol Street) to the then New Market (in the supermarket "Moscow"). Horse tram has continued to develop after the opening of the electric tram. By 1900, in addition to those already opened two more tram route:

   * Eastern Railway Station - Kalthor;
   * City Center - Hufen.

Here is how described Konigsberg tram in his travel notes famous English writer Jerome K. Jerome:

   "But the most surprising is the traveler ... tram. Huge, clean, long cars rushing through the streets at a speed of ten miles per hour, rounding the corners like a lunatic. They travel all except the officers, who are not allowed: and the porters with the luggage, and dressed ladies going to the ball - all go together. Conca inspires great respect: all the streets in a hurry to give it way. If you gape, and fall under the shiny cars, but occasionally you will live, then you got up and immediately penalized for lack of piety ... "

But history tram coming to an end. It ceased to exist in June 1901, when all the lines within the city limits (except for some routes in Hufene) were sold to the municipality. Last drawn by horse carriage drove through the streets of Koenigsberg October 30, 1901.

Conca had a gauge of 1435 mm, during the electrification of altering it to 1000 mm.

By 1899 the city was already four routes of the electric tram in 1902 they became eight in 1904 - eleven, and by 1937 the number of tram routes reached fifteen. Each route had its own color.

The motion of trams began at six o'clock and twenty minutes in the morning and ended in poldvenadtsatogo night.

The post-war period in the history tramEdit

In January 1945, in connection with military operations in Koenigsberg tram stopped. Tram economy badly damaged by bombing and storming of the city: five traction substations, four were destroyed, killing many of the cars. However, Soviet authorities almost immediately took the revival of the tram. Tram resumed work on Nov. 7, 1946. Then on the routes used by 129 restored trams (in 1939 in Konigsberg was 251 tram).

Unlike many other cities of Russia, in Kaliningrad, a tram to survive the economic crisis of the nineties of XX century with virtually no loss. Was not closed a single route, rolling stock, although it has not been updated, but the old trams were renovated. However, since the beginning of the first decade of the XXI century tram in Kaliningrad were systematically cleaning the streets. At the same time in some areas is carried out major repairs of tramways. Master plan provides for the development of Kaliningrad tram in the future. Thus, the future of the Kaliningrad tram ambiguous.

Since 1999 began the process of reducing the tram network. As of autumn 2007 was closed four routes (see below). In particular, the tram was withdrawn from the streets of Al. Nevsky (route number 8), Gorky (route number 6, 10), Suvorov (route number 2). Most tram removed in order to expand the roadway for cars (on Gorky and Al. Nevsky tram had allocated bandwidth, due to which the road was widened).

In 2008, the planned withdrawal of tramways in the streets of Frunze [1] and Gagarin [2] (part of the highway routes number 4 and 9). The cost of removing the tramways Street. Gagarin began on August 19 [3].

The tram network was once again reduced in September 2008: the route number 2 was restricted to South Station, № 8 - to cinema "Rodina" [4]. In October, were voiced plans to eliminate the streetcar line along the street Thalmann (part of the highway route number 1). At the same time, statements by the Chief Tram-Trolleybus upavleniya, the complete elimination of the tram in Kaliningrad is planned. On the contrary, planned development and reconstruction of the remaining network [5].

Last reduction - January 1, 2010: Routes 2, 9 were closed and cars, which worked on them, were transferred to the remaining routes 1, 5 and 8. Thus, on routes 1, 5 and 8 cars should be held more frequently.

At the same time, some experts suggest that in 2010 Trams in Kaliningrad do not remain. Elimination of tram lines due to their unprofitable and problems with rolling stock of non-standard gauge. In this experience of Pyatigorsk in the same tram-track was not considered. [6].

The route networkEdit

Closed trailsEdit

  • № 3 factory "Amber" - Sq. Victory - D. Rural Life - st. Kiev - zd Amber (2004)
  • № 2 Yu Station - Pool Street (January 2010)
  • № 4 tablespoons. October - South Station (in 2009)
  • № 6 Basseynaya Street - Green Street (in 2006)
  • № 7 factory "Amber" - k-p "Rodina" - Meat (in 1999)
  • № 9 Plant "Amber" - House Rural Life (January 2010)
  • № 10 Green Street - House Rural Life - South Station (in 2002)

Current routesEdit

  • № 1, Art. October (Victory Avenue) - Street Thalmann
  • № 5 Basseynaya Street - Meat (Alley bold)
  • № 8 South Station - street Thalmann

DepotEdit

The only depot is located in the South Station, at ul. Kiev, 4.

Rolling StockEdit

HistoryEdit

In the pre-war Königsberg used trams local, Konigsberg, production. They released the plant Steinfurt. On the tram motors installed (sixty kilowatts of power) and other electrical equipment company Siemens. These cars were used and after the war. Later they were replaced by trams the East production.

In 1995 in Mannheim (Germany), was purchased two six-axle tram in 1963 release, № 443 and 442. Tram number 443 has worked until the spring of 1999, until he ran out parts, which served as a source of tram number 442 (which ceased to work even earlier).

ModernEdit

Currently, Kaliningrad used exclusively "Tatras» (KT4SU, KT4D, T4SU, T4D). Most of these trams were delivered in the city in Soviet times, but later second-hand "Tatras" bought in the former East Germany.

Rolling stock in Kaliningrad prevents narrow gauge (1000 mm) and narrow gauge (maximum width of the tram - 2,2 meters, while in other cities of Russia - 2,5 meters). In Russia, the trams for this track and this draft is not available, trams same European manufacturers are too expensive.

Tram Tatra Tatra factory produced, CKD Praha-Smíchov, Czechoslovakia. n.p.Tatra Smíchov, Praha, Československo.

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