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Gera trams
800px-KT4D GVB
Info
Locale Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan
Transit type Tram
Number of lines 3
Technical
Track gauge 1,000 mm

The Gera tramway is the tram of Ostthüringische city of Gera. It is after the Halle, the oldest still existing electric tram tram Germany. It was on 22 Opened in February 1892 and has a track width of 1,000 mm. Today, the existing network of three lines is maintained by the traffic Gera GmbH (GVB) with 28 modernized KT4D-Gelenktriebwagen, 6-KTNF8 Gelenktriebwagen with low-middle-low and 12 NGT8G railcars ALSTOM LHB from Salzgitter. GVB tram marketed as light rail, especially the youngest line 1 The passenger association Pro Bahn has awarded the GVB with the passenger Award 2008 for the excellent link between the tram at three train stations / stops.

HistoryEdit

Up to 1970Edit

The first two, along 8.6 kilometers long road led from lines after Tinz Debschwitz and Untermhaus after Lindenthal (in today's stop conservatory). A year later, on 1 April 1893, followed by the third line of today's central station to Pöppeln. The lines met at the Henry Street, which has remained to this day the key transport interchanges of Gera.

After the opening of the narrow-to Meuselwitz in 1901 the tram was a railway siding on the route, were transported on the railway freight cars from now on Gera industries.

After 1945 the line had to Pöppeln, which had been operated before the Second World War, only on weekends, has been stopped because of war damage. In the 1950s, the network was first to the south (extended after Lusan (Zoitzbergstraße) and after Zwötzen), but in the 1960s, the GDR government was planning to stop the tram service in all towns with fewer than 200,000 inhabitants. Therefore, the line was discontinued from the city center after Untermhaus 1968, the center-section Zwötzen followed 1971st Consequently, there was in the city only a tram, drove by on Tinz Debschwitz after Zwötzen.

Genesis of today's networkEdit

From 1972, was built in the southwest of the city, the development area Lusan, which later, with 45,000 inhabitants, the largest development area in the district of Gera. It should be a new tram line between the turning and grinding Tinz Lusan be inferred Hatch, the first section up to Wendeschleife Zeulenrodaer Street (now Lusan-Hatch), opened in 1977. To this end, the first of the new railcars of type KT4D were purchased. The line was later extended until Lusan-Zeulsdorf, terminus Lusan-Hatch - originally planned as a provisional arrangement - but it is still in operation. On 27 and 28 October 1979 was the route up to the present terminus Lusan Lusan-Zeulsdorf put into operation.

In 1984, on concern, the main pedestrian street of the city, the last single-track section of the network shut down. The railway track was given a new body in the street running parallel to the concern behind the wall that was completely restructured and renamed temporarily to avoid political associations in Leumnitz at the gate. To this end, the path was conducted under a multi-family through, then once in the GDR.

From 1986, followed in the northeast of the city, the establishment of the new development area Bieblach East, was made possible by an extension of the line Lusan - Tinz accessible by tram. In this form, the line will run until today. As noted in Lusan the railway was also built in East Bieblach in several sections and opened. First, this route was taken to the stop Roschütz (today Heidecksburgstraße operating), then later to the present terminus Bieblach East. Unlike the Provisional Lusan Wendeschleife Roschütz but was dismantled again. Behind the Wendeschleife Bieblach / East should create a new depot (in addition to the already planned at that time in the south of the city), according to the loop structurally it has already been created for an extension. However, the turn a lot of plans was halted in the development area has been cultivated, not all the planned sections, the depot has been deleted. Today, only the unused parallel track proclaims in the loop of this initiative.

After the reunification of the rapid modernization of the tram began operation. From 26 October 1990 were used in regular service not a two-axle vehicle (car Gotha ET57 series to 62 or Tatra T2D) more. These vehicles came partly from the 1950s.

The tram depot was moved from the de Smit Street in the city center on the southern outskirts. With the construction of the shopping arcades Gera was the headquarters interchanges Heinrichstraße completely transformed and transferred in late 1998. Furthermore, it was built in the city center a turnaround loop, the tracks are now part of the route of the light rail line 1st In 2004, the route of Line 2 was reduced and a new terminus at the railway station close to the GVB Zwötzen new depot opened. The old terminus Zwötzen was shut down in order. The end of 2008 was passed, a new connecting point for buses and trains at the University of Cooperative Education. It replaces the interchange at the former Wendeschleife Tinz, which was dismantled as part of construction work in spring 2008. Make plans for the reunification period, the turning loop for accident cases, both sides had done navigable with it.

History of the trail namesEdit

The turning point came in part to confusing route designations. Since many publications on Gera has not been updated for years to 1991/92, there was until the late 1990s, partly incorrect line names in travel guides. GVB's own documents which are largely unaffected.

   * As a tram line 1 of Tinz Lusan about Hatch-to-drove Lusan Zeulsdorf
   * In contrast, the same train line 1E of Tinz Lusan went to brute -
   * In line 2, the orbits of Tinz drove up Zwötzen
   * In line 3 after the track Bieblach East - Tinz - Lusan-Hatch - Lusan-Zeulsdorf was called.

Today, driving on this relation, only the orbits of the line 3, but in the 5-minute intervals. There was only a shorter version of Lusan-up Zeulsdorf Tinz. This was described as a line amplifier 3E and only used for trips. In February 2008 began the dismantling of the Wendeschleife Tinz, making it the only line 3 is on this relation.

The lines of the line 2 has been amended several times in the 1990s. Originally Line went through 2 of Tinz Gleisdreieck Lusan identical to line 3, then on a separate line to Zwötzen. It was later shortened to the track Heinrichstraße - Gleisdreieck Lusan - Zwötzen. Once the route to the timetable change of 2 June 1996 has been completely changed and perverted Line 2 between Lusan-Hatch and Zwötzen, the track was shortened again in 2004 with the construction of the new terminus station Zwötzen.

Further expansion plansEdit

As a future expansion projects of the traffic Gera has announced:

   * Reconstruction of the route at the bus stop anxiety / Market Rasen on the track and redesigning the station (2009)
   * Renewal of the route and the stops of the line 3 between cooperative education and Bieblach-East (2009-2010)
   * Construction of a new route between Tinz / Cooperative Education and the previously non-affiliated District Langenberg for future line 4 (2009-2012): After the stop of Cooperative Education will establish a track triangle. Plans are currently 4 stops: Siemens Street (border the land owned by Rieger and furniture dealership, Mercedes-Benz), on Lerchenberg, Chantilly, and Langenberg (Wendeschleife next to Lidl). Will operate on the new line the paths of the previous line 3 Line 3 then travels only in the 10-minute intervals. Between Lusan-Zeulsdorf Cooperative Education and drives the line 4 to 5 minutes then placed in 10-minute intervals, the same route, but then from farther Gleisdreieck Langenberg.
   * Renewal of the route and the stops between Gleisdreieck Lusan and Wendeschleife Lusan-Hatch (2012)
   * Reconstruction of the route in the Meadow Street (Line 3) for the particular car body (2012-2014). The third project partially takes place under heavy protest from the local dealer. As a compromise was offered, just make a section with a few car-free shops, or only one direction of travel.

It will also be incorporated in the zoning Gera 2020 three extension options from previous plans: On the one route in Langenberg, which will be implemented by 2012 (approximately three kilometers long). On the other hand an extension of the route in Bieblach-east (the turn loop is already structurally suitable for a possible extension) from Carl-Zeiss-Straße along the Gottlieb-Daimler-Straße until you reach a roundabout road Dorna (length approximately 1.1 kilometers). A third path from concern about Altenburger road Leumnitz until the globe (length approximately 4.2 kilometers) as part of an east-west axis is also included. The east-west axis will even go to the hospital, but is present in the section Henry Street Clinic no routing so that it appears only in the general plan circulation. The extension of the line in Bieblach East will enter the implementation phase if a corresponding development of the special construction areas at the node Thüringer Street Dorna Street begins. The east-west axis is mainly dependent on the development of the area around the local airport Leumnitz.

FreightEdit

Between 1892 and 1963 and from 1982 to 1985 was carried out on the network of Gera tramway freight.

Shortly after the opening of the tramway company was founded in August 1892 the freight depot (now the Prussian railway station) is connected via a freight rail track. The cars were propped up on roller stands and then driven with electric locomotives on the tram network to the factories in the track area. Initially the cars were handled here also the Saxon Railroad. When this was no longer required by the competent Prussian Railway, was around 1896 and the goods station of the Saxon station (South Station joined today).

As for 1900/1901 in the south of the city gates at the station of the narrow Gera-Meuselwitz-Wuitz railroad was built, the tracks were extended from the nearby depot Lindenthal (in today's conservatory) to the new doors to the station, where from now on Coal that was passed mined in the region around Meuselwitz, and was then distributed in the urban area with electric locomotives to the factories.

As early as 1931 the Prussian port on the freight station was no longer necessary, was abandoned and partially dismantled. Until the 1950s, have been continuously connected to other factories to the tram network. Given the intense street rail car traffic was becoming a hindrance, and in 1963 the last remaining locomotive had to be broken off, they decided to discontinue the carriage of goods. A further result then did a severe storm in 1969 completely destroyed the tracks in the station gates. The station was never rebuilt. The remaining port on the south freight station now served only by trams to being loaded on freight trains.

The reduction of oil imports from the Soviet Union, led in the early 1980s, the WEMA works on the orders of the GDR government to provide transportation between two sub-factories in the city by tram. To this end, in the Henry Bridge moved a special operations platform. Another operation near the railway station Zwötzen existed near the present depot. The freight could take place only in the off-peak after 21 clock, but what with the production processes at the plant was not compatible. Thus, the movement took place only intermittently and was discontinued entirely in 1985.

Additionally, the GVB also operates on the railway route from Gera to Zeitz freight. Between the freight yard and the industrial district of Gera Langenberg GVB operates a five kilometer long railway siding. The web is ridden with Dieselrangierloks Oiltanking and is exported to standard gauge to allow seamless connection to the network of Deutsche Bahn. According to ex-boss Vornehm GVB this is the introduction to further engagement of the GVB to transport freight.

History of the trail namesEdit

The turning point came in part to confusing route designations. Since many publications on Gera has not been updated for years to 1991/92, there was until the late 1990s, partly incorrect line names in travel guides. GVB's own documents which are largely unaffected.

   * As a tram line 1 of Tinz Lusan about Hatch-to-drove Lusan Zeulsdorf
   * In contrast, the same train line 1E of Tinz Lusan went to brute -
   * In line 2, the orbits of Tinz drove up Zwötzen
   * In line 3 after the track Bieblach East - Tinz - Lusan-Hatch - Lusan-Zeulsdorf was called.

Today, driving on this relation, only the orbits of the line 3, but in the 5-minute intervals. There was only a shorter version of Lusan-up Zeulsdorf Tinz. This was described as a line amplifier 3E and only used for trips. In February 2008 began the dismantling of the Wendeschleife Tinz, making it the only line 3 is on this relation.

The lines of the line 2 has been amended several times in the 1990s. Originally Line went through 2 of Tinz Gleisdreieck Lusan identical to line 3, then on a separate line to Zwötzen. It was later shortened to the track Heinrichstraße - Gleisdreieck Lusan - Zwötzen. Once the route to the timetable change of 2 June 1996 has been completely changed and perverted Line 2 between Lusan-Hatch and Zwötzen, the track was shortened again in 2004 with the construction of the new terminus station Zwötzen.

Further expansion plansEdit

As a future expansion projects of the traffic Gera has announced:

   * Reconstruction of the route at the bus stop anxiety / Market Rasen on the track and redesigning the station (2009)
   * Renewal of the route and the stops of the line 3 between cooperative education and Bieblach-East (2009-2010)
   * Construction of a new route between Tinz / Cooperative Education and the previously non-affiliated District Langenberg for future line 4 (2009-2012): After the stop of Cooperative Education will establish a track triangle. Plans are currently 4 stops: Siemens Street (border the land owned by Rieger and furniture dealership, Mercedes-Benz), on Lerchenberg, Chantilly, and Langenberg (Wendeschleife next to Lidl). Will operate on the new line the paths of the previous line 3 Line 3 then travels only in the 10-minute intervals. Between Lusan-Zeulsdorf Cooperative Education and drives the line 4 to 5 minutes then placed in 10-minute intervals, the same route, but then from farther Gleisdreieck Langenberg.
   * Renewal of the route and the stops between Gleisdreieck Lusan and Wendeschleife Lusan-Hatch (2012)
   * Reconstruction of the route in the Meadow Street (Line 3) for the particular car body (2012-2014). The third project partially takes place under heavy protest from the local dealer. As a compromise was offered, just make a section with a few car-free shops, or only one direction of travel.

It will also be incorporated in the zoning Gera 2020 three extension options from previous plans: On the one route in Langenberg, which will be implemented by 2012 (approximately three kilometers long). On the other hand an extension of the route in Bieblach-east (the turn loop is already structurally suitable for a possible extension) from Carl-Zeiss-Straße along the Gottlieb-Daimler-Straße until you reach a roundabout road Dorna (length approximately 1.1 kilometers). A third path from concern about Altenburger road Leumnitz until the globe (length approximately 4.2 kilometers) as part of an east-west axis is also included. The east-west axis will even go to the hospital, but is present in the section Henry Street Clinic no routing so that it appears only in the general plan circulation. The extension of the line in Bieblach East will enter the implementation phase if a corresponding development of the special construction areas at the node Thüringer Street Dorna Street begins. The east-west axis is mainly dependent on the development of the area around the local airport Leumnitz.

FreightEdit

Between 1892 and 1963 and from 1982 to 1985 was carried out on the network of Gera tramway freight.

Shortly after the opening of the tramway company was founded in August 1892 the freight depot (now the Prussian railway station) is connected via a freight rail track. The cars were propped up on roller stands and then driven with electric locomotives on the tram network to the factories in the track area. Initially the cars were handled here also the Saxon Railroad. When this was no longer required by the competent Prussian Railway, was around 1896 and the goods station of the Saxon station (South Station joined today).

As for 1900/1901 in the south of the city gates at the station of the narrow Gera-Meuselwitz-Wuitz railroad was built, the tracks were extended from the nearby depot Lindenthal (in today's conservatory) to the new doors to the station, where from now on Coal that was passed mined in the region around Meuselwitz, and was then distributed in the urban area with electric locomotives to the factories.

As early as 1931 the Prussian port on the freight station was no longer necessary, was abandoned and partially dismantled. Until the 1950s, have been continuously connected to other factories to the tram network. Given the intense street rail car traffic was becoming a hindrance, and in 1963 the last remaining locomotive had to be broken off, they decided to discontinue the carriage of goods. A further result then did a severe storm in 1969 completely destroyed the tracks in the station gates. The station was never rebuilt. The remaining port on the south freight station now served only by trams to being loaded on freight trains.

The reduction of oil imports from the Soviet Union, led in the early 1980s, the WEMA works on the orders of the GDR government to provide transportation between two sub-factories in the city by tram. To this end, in the Henry Bridge moved a special operations platform. Another operation near the railway station Zwötzen existed near the present depot. The freight could take place only in the off-peak after 21 clock, but what with the production processes at the plant was not compatible. Thus, the movement took place only intermittently and was discontinued entirely in 1985.

Additionally, the GVB also operates on the railway route from Gera to Zeitz freight. Between the freight yard and the industrial district of Gera Langenberg GVB operates a five kilometer long railway siding. The web is ridden with Dieselrangierloks Oiltanking and is exported to standard gauge to allow seamless connection to the network of Deutsche Bahn. According to ex-boss Vornehm GVB this is the introduction to further engagement of the GVB to transport freight.

VehiclesEdit

An overview of the vehicles of Gera tramway (as of November 2006):

KT4DEdit

450px-Tatra-320

Historical KT4D

(Kurzgelenk railcar axles 4-Germany)

Between 1979 and 1990 Tatra type railcars KT4D were obtained, and 1990 replaced the old railcars of all types Lowa and Gotha. Some of these cars were still from the 1950s. Moreover, it came in the second half of the 1990s to numerous innovations. Between 1990 and 1998 were the line operation only modernized KT4D used cars, of which the GVB had a total of 64 specimens of the year 1978 to 1990. The GVB has KT4D modernized 2009 28, 24 of which are equipped with a chopper control. Another 6 KT4D were converted to KTNF8 a KT4D was back as a historic railway in its original condition. The rest were mostly sold to Tallinn and Lviv, some vehicles have been scrapped after an accident. KT4D with 4x40 kW are typically used in Gera in traction by two cars. The KT4D are incorporated in the car park under the numbers 3xx. Since April 2009 all KT4D/KTNF8 have vending machines. Previously, the tickets had to be always purchased at stationary machines or in retail outlets.

KTNF8Edit

800px-StraBaGera04

KTNF8 and KT4D on line 3

(Kurzgelenk railcar low 8-axis)

In the years 1999, 2001 and 2003, six cars were rebuilt with company number 348 to 353 to KTNF8. These vehicles are longer and have a central part in low-floor, more powerful engines (4x60 kW) and a wheelchair ramp as well as numerous technical changes. KTNF8 be used in pairs, never in Gera, but only in traction with KT4D or individually. Reason is the length of the stops.

NGT8GEdit

(Low-level articulated railcar axles 8-Gera)

2006 were placed parallel to the opening of the city line 1, six new NGT8G low-floor trams from Alstom LHB in service, although needed to optimize the timetable on the line 1 instead of only five started with six lanes, the sixth since Bahn runs mostly along the line 2, needed on the web is only one. A further six trains were followed in a second from December 2007 until April 2008. These cars run in Gera in principle separately. With the arrival of the first carriage of the second batch it was decided the car names of persons in the city to give. Thus, the first car in December 2007 was given the name of Otto Dix. The new cars will replace old ones are not modernized KT4D on line 3 and increase the low percentage on the line. However, they can replace the KT4D-tractions not fully satisfying, because the smaller space in the new lanes at peak hours is often pushed to its limits. The NGT8G are incorporated in the car park below the numbers 2xx.

   * 207 Otto Dix
   * 208 Henry Posthumus
   * 209 Otto Lummer
   * 210 Clement Weisker
   * 211 Aenne Biermann
   * 212 Thilo Schoder

A subsequent naming of the tracks 201-206 is planned.

FutureEdit

It was originally in the investment plan for urban transport 2008-2012, the years 2010 and 2011 for the procurement of two NGT12G (low-level articulated railcar axles 12-Gera laid down) vehicles. In the meantime, however, plans to progressively from 2014, all Tatra trains replaced with new low-floor vehicles, so that for the time being procured but no other vehicles are. Nor is it clear yet whether more traction, however, three-piece with side-car or larger are multipart individual vehicles. The new vehicles must be designed for at least 200 people. That was in October 2009 for testing a borrowed from Darmstadt NGT8D along with a sidecar on the line 3 in action in order to test the Beiwagenbetrieb under autumnal weather, since it is precisely the route to Bieblach / East, with its 6% slope is quite challenging.

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